For example, in one study on abnormal semen defined by WHO criteria , density gradient centrifugation resulted in selection of sperm with higher scores for the acrosome reaction, the HOS test and nuclear maturity, than those selected with a swim-up procedure. If the semen parameters are abnormal, the number of sperm isolated from the specimen is related to both fertilization and pregnancy rate following routine IVF. Neurologic illness such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis can impair ejaculatory function as well as limit sperm quality in the case of spinal cord injury. Assessment of ejaculated semen begins with determination of the time it takes for the specimen to liquefy. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31 2:
Macaque sperm requires capacitation with dibutryl cyclic AMP and caffeine [ ]. For normal semen specimens, both techniques generate high-motility sperm for oocyte insemination. Information on vibrostimulation or electroejaculation to obtain sperm can be given and referrals made Phillips et al. A common complication during collection, particularly if the bladder has not been emptied before starting the procedure, is contamination of the sample by some urine. They also concluded that there was no difference between conventional and segmented probe. Frozen semen may also be used for long-term storage for preservation of genetic biodiversity.
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Semen volume and number of progressively motile sperm in each ejaculate during electroejaculation in a Siberian tiger. It has recently been suggested that abnormal seminal plasma contributes to asthenozoospermia in men with spinal cord injuries Brackett et al. There were only 6 out of 14 trials The testicular volume during the experimental period was within the range Furthermore, this procedure is easy, safe to apply, improves reliability in obtaining sample and requires minimal facilities Palmer,
The concentration of serum testosterone was similar to those reported in the previous studies [ 17 , 22 ], and the serum cortisol level was lower than that in a previous study [ 22 ]. Viable spermatozoa were collected from all animals. Thus, spontaneous ejaculation should be better than electroejaculation. Assessment of ejaculated semen begins with determination of the time it takes for the specimen to liquefy. When assisted ejaculation through both PVS and EEJ is either impossible or has failed, then the next choice consists of sperm retrieval directly from the epididymis or the testis, either by aspiration or surgically.